Political Map of Egypt shows the international and provincial boundaries and national capital.
The name ‘Egypt’ originated from ‘Aigyptos’, meaning ‘land’ in Greek. In ancient times, the Greeks termed the land as ‘black land’ referring to fertile and black earth (soil) of the River Nile.
Nearly 3100 B.C., the realms of Lower and Upper Egypt were united under influential kings called the ‘pharaoh’. These kings constructed huge temples, pyramids, and other monuments and conquered other lands. Later the region was invaded by several warriors including Romans, Muslims, Turkish, and Europeans. The country got independence in 1952 from Great Britain and obtained control over the ‘Suez Canal’ in 1956.
Egypt’s geography is divided into 2 regions- Southwest Asia and North Africa. The country has the seashores on the River Nile, the Red Sea, and the Mediterranean Sea. Egypt is bordered by Libya (West); the Gaza Strip (Northeast); Sudan (South) and Israel (Northeast). The total land area of the country is around 995,450 SqKm. River Nile is highly significant in the region as, without it, the nation would be a desert. Southern Egypt has desert and low mountains; while Northern Egypt includes valleys near the Nile River and the desert in the east and west. The capital city ‘North of Cairo’ is highly fertile and covered with farms.
The total population of Egypt is 102,548,792 as of Aug 2020 (UN Data) with life expectancy being 72.54 years for both males and females. The infant mortality rate at birth is 13.2/1000 children and deaths under 5 are 16.9/1000 children. The official language is Arabic; while French and English are broadly understood by the educated ones. Nationality is Egyptian and Islam is the most dominant religion (approx. 90% followers, mostly Sunni); 9% Coptic and 1% Christian.
Food processing, textiles, chemicals, tourism, light manufactures, metals, construction, pharmaceuticals are the major industries; while petroleum items and crude oil; cotton; metal items; chemicals; textiles are the major export items and foodstuffs; machinery & equipment, fuels, wood items are the major import items. Egypt has abundant natural resources including natural gas, petroleum, manganese, iron ore, limestone, phosphates, talc, gypsum, lead, asbestos, and zinc.
There is a huge gap between very rich and poor people across Egypt; while the basic culture encourages respecting the poor, weak, and vulnerable sections through gestures and behavior. Egyptians are authorized to get healthcare and education along with employment guarantee to the graduates. Eating is a vital social and cultural activity that even marks ceremonial festivals and special occasions.
Places to Visit
Pyramids of Giza
Declared as one of the 7 wonders of the world, the three pyramids of Giza are the house to ancient Pharaohs’ tombs and graves. Situated in the Giza Plateau, these are the only constructions that have remained for more than thousands of years.
Citadel of Saladin
Declared as the World Heritage Site by UNESCO, Citadel is a huge fortification, lined by numerous houses, watchtowers, spectacular mosques along with Joseph’s well inside, making the place must-visit.
One of the best spots for relaxing across Southern Egypt, Aswan is popular for its magnificent views of the Nile River and the desert dunes. The Elephantine Islands and the vibrant Nubian villages, right in the middle of the Island offer an amazing getaway for holidaying and for an evening stroll, eating, and enjoying.
Egypt must best be visited during October across April as the temperatures get cooler then.